People who walk regularly for exercise may notice that their speed declines and they tire more easily as they age.
But is that because they are aging? Could that reduction in walking economy be slowed or reversed by other types of exercise, such as running?
Upstate Medical University exercise physiologist Carol Sames explains how running was found to be more beneficial than walking in an intriguing study that compared walkers and runners in Boulder, Colorado. She says running is not appropriate for everyone, and she offers some other ways walkers can add intensity to their workouts.
Carol Sames, PhD: Why running is better than walking[ 0.01 MB ]Play Now | Download
Early intervention within the first 24 hours of a severe nosebleed can improve the outcomes, according to research by Jennifer Villwock, MD, a fourth-year resident in otolaryngology at Upstate Medical University. She studied more than 59,000 cases involving the treatment of epistaxis, the medical word for nosebleeds. In this interview, she talks about what causes nosebleeds and how best to treat them.
Jennifer Villwock, MD: Proper treatment of nosebleeds[ 0.01 MB ]Play Now | Download
Scientists Andrea Viczian, PhD, and Michael E. Zuber, PhD, are searching for ways to replace cells that are lost during retinal degeneration. Their work centers on finding an efficient method of converting stem cells into retinal cells. It is paid for with a grant designed to stimulate collaboration among researchers at State University of New York campuses.
Michael Zuber, PhD & Andrea Viczian, PhD: Retinal repair research[ 0.01 MB ]Play Now | Download
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is not the result of modern society. The first evidence of the disorder dates back to the early 19th century, when doctors described signs and symptoms of what we now know as ADHD, says Stephen Faraone, PhD, an Upstate scientist who specializes in ADHD research. In this segment, he discusses possible causes of ADHD, its relation to autism and the likelihood that children could “outgrow” ADHD by the time they reach adulthood.
A family of molecules known as the Wave Complex interact within our cells. Which molecular family members are present at any given time in the life of a cell determines how that cell will behave: how it gets nutrition, whether and how it moves, whether it remains stationery.
This complex appears to play a major role in the invasive types of breast cancer, says Leszek Kotula, PhD, associate professor of urology and biochemistry and molecular biology. Working on the theory that the Wave Complex could be a target for therapy are Kotula and two colleagues, Steve Landas, MD, professor of pathology and urology, and Mira Krendel, PhD, assistant professor of cell and developmental biology.
When they increase some specific molecules in the complex, the cancer spreads, Kotula says. He adds that by decreasing certain molecules, “we may actually stop metastasis, or greatly affect it.”
The next step will be to test the effects of existing cancer drugs on these molecules. Landas, a diagnostic pathologist for 35 years, sees the potential. “Wouldn’t it be a wonderful thing if we find ourselves in a situation where we can look at certain members of this family of molecules and know with a high degree of certainty which drugs will work and which will not?”
Microbiologist Gary Chan, PhD discusses his research into the effects of human cytomegalovirus infection, also known as HCMV – a herpes virus, on monocyte cell survival. Chan is assistant professor of microbiology and immunology at Upstate Medical University, and recently received a $402,500 grant from National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases for the project.
The protein, paxillin plays an important role in cell movement. What scientists are trying to determine is exactly how paxillin affects the movement of cancer cells away from a primary tumor, into the blood stream and on to colonize distant organs. It’s important to know because “If we can develop ways in which we can limit paxillin’s function, we may be able to block the process of metastasis,” says Christopher Turner, PhD, professor of cell and developmental biology.
Many of the drugs used to fight breast cancer tumors target microtubules, the proteins that makes up the cytoskeleton that helps cells maintain their shape and internal organization. These drugs create toxic side effects for patients.
“We found that the level of expression of paxillin in tumor cells may actually influence the microtubule cytoskeleton and, therefore, may influence how those drugs actually work in individual patients,” Turner says.
Nicholas Deakin, PhD, research assistant professor of cell and developmental biology, points out that the deaths of 95 percent of the 40,000 American women who die from breast cancer each year are linked to metastasis. “It’s not the tumor in the breast that really is the problem. It’s the ability of the cells to move away from there,” he explains. “If we can detect the tumors early, and if we can then treat them with a drug or know what drug to go with to stop their spread, then that’s going to greatly influence the survival of these patients.”
Turner and Deakin are among dozens of researchers who have received grants from the Carol M. Baldwin Breast Cancer Research Fund of CNY since 2002.
Christopher Turner, PhD and Nicholas Deakin, PhD: Impact of Paxillin Expression on breast cancer drug efficacy[ 0.01 MB ]Play Now | Download
Neuropathologist Robert Corona, DO, helps us understand a new study from the National Institutes for Health (NIH), and what the new three-dimensional tissue model could mean for scientists studying the human brain. Corona is professor and chair of the Pathology, and vice president for Innovation and Business Development at Upstate Medical University. Read the story: Bioengineers create functional 3D brain-like tissue
Robert J Corona Jr, DO,MBA,FCAP,FASCP: Advances in brain science[ 0.01 MB ]Play Now | Download